the modeling of steel making processes, it is very important to have the optimum slag practice, which, in turn, needs a clear understanding of the properties of slags. In this case, the slag is termed synthetic. [6], Glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated from its raw ore, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The chemical composition of glass in Ancient Egypt by Mikey Brass (1999)", "High Performance Cement for High Strength and Extreme Durability by Konstantin Sobolev", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Slag&oldid=998135873, Articles needing additional references from April 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 00:17. Aggregate with Steel Slag at different Properties”. A good example is steelmaking slag: quicklime and magnesite are introduced for refractory protection, neutralising the alumina and silica separated from the metal, and assist in the removal of sulfur and phosphorus from the steel. However, the most important application is construction. During the early 20th century, iron ore slag was also ground to a powder and used to make agate glass, also known as slag glass. [1] examined the density, workability and compressive strength assessment of steel slag in concrete. Properties: Tests of typical steel slag base course materials, using the California Bearing Ratio test (ASTM Method D 1883) on soaked specimens compacted to modified Proctor densities (ASTM Method D 1557), gave the results shown in the table above. Steel Slag - Asphalt Concrete INTRODUCTION Steel slag can be processed into a coarse or fine aggregate material for use in dense- and open-graded hot mix asphalt concrete pavements, (1,2,3) and in cold mix or surface treatment applications. density of slag, solid is equal to 2 114 kg/m³. (4) Proper processing of steel slag and special quality-control procedures are extremely important in selecting steel slag for use in asphalt paving mixes. Concrete containing ground granulated slag develops strength over a longer period, leading to reduced permeability and better durability. The slag is removed from the vessel after the exothermic refinement of molten iron and recycled steel in the presence of fluxes and oxygen. Depending on the intended steel quality (carbon steel or stainless/high alloy … The steel slag is used as a secondary cementitious binder, or aggregates for road construction (Sheen et al., 2013; Manso et al., 2004). The physical characteristics such as density, porosity, and particle size, are affected by the cooling rates and chemical composition. The density of steelmaking slag lies between 3.3 to 3.6 tons/cum. Any sandy component or quartz component of the original ore automatically carries through the smelting process as silicon dioxide. However, slags can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals. It was also ground into powder to add to glazes for use in ceramics. The mineral composition of blast furnace slag generally consists of melilite (Ca 2 MgSi 2 O 7 - Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7) and merwinite (Ca 3 MgSi 2 O 8).Steelmaking slag (BOS or EAF) mainly consist of dicalciumsilicate (Ca 2 SiO 4), dicalciumferrite (Ca 2 Fe 2 O 5) and wuestite (Fe 1 -x- y,Mg x,Mn y)O z.. It was primarily blue or green and was formerly chipped away and melted down to make glassware products and jewelry. The slag has a lower density than steel and therefore floats on top of the molten steel. Some of the earliest such uses for the by-products of slag have been found in ancient Egypt. The water carries the slag in its slurry format to a large agitation tank, from where it is pumped along a piping system into a number of gravel based filter beds. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. This process causes several chemical reactions to take place within the slag, and gives the material its cementitious properties. Due to the high density of steel slag, concrete containing steel slag aggregate has a higher density than plain cement concrete does . From this and the added fluxing agents molten slag and iron are formed. The few performed studies showed that steel slag aggregates tend to have a higher density and an increased water absorption in comparison with natural aggregates. A slag by-product of such workings was a colorful, glassy, vitreous material found on the surfaces of slag from ancient copper foundries. Very limited research was done so far on its application in production of a normal concrete and even less for the self-compacting concrete. The former comprises of the integral [4] The slag can also be used to create fibers used as an insulation material called slag wool. The density of steelmaking slag lies between 3.2 grams per cubic centimeters (g/cc) to 3.6 g/cc. As the slag has a lower density than steel, it floats on top of the molten bath of steel. Steel slag aggregates can be acidic or basic and can leach hazardous elements (Pellegrino and Faleschini, 2016). Slag is the collection of compounds that are removed. In many smelting processes, oxides are introduced to control the slag chemistry, assisting in the removal of impurities and protecting the furnace refractory lining from excessive wear. Slag/metal reactions involve ions (Equn 1) and involve charge exchange resulting in the changes shown in Figure 1. Ground granulated slag reacts with a calcium byproduct created during the reaction of Portland cement to produce cementitious properties. While slags are generally used to remove waste in metal smelting, they can also serve other purposes, such as assisting in the temperature control of the smelting, and minimizing any re-oxidation of the final liquid metal product before the molten metal is removed from the furnace and used to make solid metal. The electric arc furnace slag aggregates showed tendency to expand, which is related to the presence of certain volumetrically unstable periclase and free line (Evangelista and de Brito, 2010). JSW Steel has set up a unique BOF slag granulation plant, producing slag with lower free lime content and is vigorously pursuing with BIS. Steel slag is a byproduct of the steelmaking and steel refining processes. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081024805000075, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000136, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003688000075, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128005170000022, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000057, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000100, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000124, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081024447000046, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000094, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128173695000106, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Cementitious Construction Materials, 2018, New Trends in Eco-efficient and Recycled Concrete, EUROSLAG; Liu et al., 2013; Nippon slag association, Shi, 2004; Tossavainen et al., 2007; Das et al., 2007; Juckes, 2003; Mahieux et al., 2009; Poh et al., 2006; Shen et al., 2009; Waligora et al., 2010; Xuequan et al., 1999, Johnson et al., 2003; Huaiwei and Xin, 2011; Rosales et al., 2017, Shi, 2004; Tossavainen et al., 2007; Barra et al., 2001; Luxán et al., 2000; Manso et al., 2006; Tsakiridis et al., 2008; Israel Sosa, 2017, Shi, 2004; Tossavainen et al., 2007; Manso et al., 2013; Nicolae et al., 2007; Qian et al., 2002; Papayianni and Anastasiou, 2006; Branca et al., 2009; Rodriguez et al., 2009; Setién et al., 2009; Papayianni and Anastasiou, 2010; Montenegro et al., 2013, EUROSLAG; Liu et al., 2013; Nippon Slag Association, Ministerio de Fomento – Gobierno de España, 2008; Martín-Morales et al., 2011, Shi, 2004; Tossavainen et al., 2007; Barra et al., 2001; Luxán et al., 2000; Manso et al., 2006; Tsakiridis et al., 2008, Tossavainen et al., 2007; Adolfsson et al., 2007; Nicolae et al., 2007; Yildirim and Prezzi, 2011, Manso et al., 2013; Qian et al., 2002; Papayianni and Anastasiou, 2006, 2010; Branca et al., 2009; Rodriguez et al., 2009; Setién et al., 2009; Montenegro et al., 2013, Slag use in cement manufacture and cementitious applications, The Utilization of Slag in Civil Infrastructure Construction, Asaga, Shibata, Hirano, Goto, & Daimon, 1981; Duda, 1987; Narang & Chopra, 1983, The laboratory results are inconclusive in determining the efficiency of intergrinding, Asaga et al., 1981; Duda, 1987; Narang & Chopra, 1983, The Indian experience of steel slag application in civil engineering, Ivanka Netinger Grubeša, ... Samitinjay S. Bansode, in, Characteristics and Uses of Steel Slag in Building Construction, Self-Sensing Concrete in Smart Structures, Usability criteria for slag use in rigid matrices, Carbon dioxide sequestration using steel slag—modeling and experimental investigation, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Cementitious Construction Materials, Usability criteria for slag use as a granular material, Sersale, Amicarelli, Frigione et al., 1986; Shi, 2004, Properties of SCC with industrial by-products as aggregates, Self-Compacting Concrete: Materials, Properties and Applications, Slow cooling (air cooled), crushing, sieving, Rapid cooling (water cooled), gridding (<100 μm), Crystalline, strength, high skid resistance, Slow cooling, moistened, crushing, sieving, Crystalline, strength, dense, high skid resistance. Blast furnace slag was about 50% of the tonnage sold and accounted for 88% of the total value of slag, most of which was granulated. However, slags can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals. [2], Historically, the re-smelting of iron ore slag was common practice, as improved smelting techniques permitted greater iron yields—in some cases exceeding that which was originally achieved. Although the construction industry does use some slag as an aggregate, most is simply discarded. Selected physical properties of steel slag are shown in Table 10.1. During smelting, when the ore is exposed to high temperatures, these impurities are separated from the molten metal and can be removed. Table2: Some properties of iron and steel slag aggregates compared to natural rocks [11]: Property Blast furnace slag Steel slag Basalt Greywacke bulk density (g/cm3) 2,4 3,6 3,0 2,7 compressive strength (N/mm2) 100 200 300 200 impact value (%) 27 17 17 20 resistance to polishing (PSV) 50 57 50 56 Because of the high thickness of steel slag, concrete containing steel slag total has a higher thickness than plain concrete cement does. • Blast furnace slag may be used in concrete. Ferrous and non-ferrous smelting processes produce different slags. Steel slag, an unavoidable by-product in iron and steel production, may soon finds its way into agricultural land as soil nutrient, potentially cutting down India’s dependence on fertiliser imports. The bulk density of the steelmaking slag is in the range of 1.6 tons/cum to 1.9 tons/cum. Depending on the used production technology, the steel slag can be divided into a basic oxygen steel slag, an electric arc furnace slag and a ladle furnace slag (De Brito and Saika, 2013). Selected physical properties of steel slag are shown in Table 10.1. Both BOF C and EAF S weathered naturally under a laboratory conditions for a specific period of time to achieve satisfying volume … Physical properties of steel slag are given in Table 3. However, slag could be used to treat acid soils or acid mine drainage. [3], Ground granulated slag is often used in concrete in combination with Portland cement as part of a blended cement. Basic slag is a co-product of steelmaking, and is typically produced either through the blast furnace - oxygen converter route or the electric arc furnace - ladle furnace route. The test is carried out at the replacement level of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% at the ages of 7 and Slag is used in the manufacture of high-performance concretes, especially those used in the construction of bridges and coastal features, where its low permeability and greater resistance to chlorides and sulfates can help to reduce corrosive action and deterioration of the structure. During the Bronze Age of the Mediterranean there were a vast number of differential metallurgical processes in use. Steel slag is a byproduct from either the conversion of iron to steel in a basic oxygen furnace, or the melting of scrap to make steel in an electric arc furnace. The filter beds then retain the slag granules, while the water drains away and is returned to the system. Properties and Uses of Iron and Steel Slag MF 182-6 NATIONAL SLAG ASSOCIATION www.nationalslagassoc.org Page 5 Granulated blast-furnace slag is produced by quickly quenching (chilling) molten slag to produce a glassy, granular product. In nature, iron, copper, lead, nickel and other metals are found in impure states called ores, often oxidized and mixed in with silicates of other metals. It was reported that the X-ray diffraction pattern of steel slag is close to that of Portland cement clinker. In some smelting processes, such as ilmenite smelting to produce titanium dioxide, the slag is the valuable product instead of the metal.[1]. The iron ore is a mixture of iron oxides, silica, and alumina. Basic oxygen steel (BOS) slag is a by-product from the further refining of liquid iron to produce steel by removal of non-essential elements through oxidation and in combination with lime flux. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Depending on the used production technology, the steel slag can be divided into a basic oxygen steel slag, an electric arc furnace slag and a ladle furnace slag (De Brito and Saika, 2013). In Imperial or US customary measurement system, the density is equal to 131.9727 pound per cubic foot [lb/ft³], or 1.222 ounce per cubic inch [oz/inch³] . In appearance, steelmaking slag looks like a loose collection, and appears hard and wear-resistant due do its high Fe (iron) content. The liquid slag is tapped at temperatures around 1600 °C and allowed to slowly air-cool forming crystalline slag. [citation needed]. Physical Description SFS produced in the BOS is dark gray in color and characteristically harder than blast furnace slag (BFS) with a density approximately 20 - 25% greater than basalt or BFS. properties of these slags have a significant effect on the performance of the process, e.g. 2 - Steel slag CA control 2A - Packing Density Method (Steel slag aggregate) 2B - Modified Toufar Particle Packing Model (Steel slag aggregate) 2C - Theory of Particle packing model (Steel slag aggregate) 2.1.1 Cement The cement used in this study of steel slag concrete was OPC Grade 43. The slag properties are commonly divided into two parts, viz. Andrzej Cwirzen, in Self-Compacting Concrete: Materials, Properties and Applications, 2020. Its bulk density is in the … Table ( 3 ): Typical physical properties of steel slag. INTRODUCTION. With high particle density and hardness, this slag has superior wear resistance and for this reason is used as an aggregate for asphalt concrete. As the slag is channeled out of the furnace, water is poured over it. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Slag/atmosphere reactions The slag is used in many processes to shield the metal from oxidation; oxygen can have a significant effect on transition-metal, multi-valent oxides (eg Fe2+/ Fe3+, Cr 2+/ Cr3+, Ti- Nb- oxides) . Physical properties of steel slag (De Brito and Saika, 2013). Slag, solid weighs 2.114 gram per cubic centimeter or 2 114 kilogram per cubic meter, i.e. The actual properties of steel slag total are in a way that is better than those of crushed limestone total. • Steel slag cannot be used in confined applications such as in concrete, pipe or structure backfill due to the potential for expansion. Because of the slowly released phosphate content in phosphorus-containing slag, and because of its liming effect, it is valued as fertilizer in gardens and farms in steel making areas. Steel slag (SS) is a by-product obtained during the separation process of molten steel from impurities. At the same time the abrasion resistance tends to be enhanced (Anastasiou and Papayianni, 2006). Slag from steel mills in ferrous smelting, on the other hand, is designed to minimize iron loss and so mainly contains oxides of calcium, silicon, magnesium, and aluminium. DENSITY OF STEEL The density of steel is in the range of 7.75 and 8.05 g/cm 3 (7750 and … Since the unit volume of Portland cement is reduced, this concrete is less vulnerable to alkali-silica and sulfate attack. Slag - Usage • Slag aggregates are approved for a number of uses although there are restrictions. The major components of these slags therefore include the oxides of calcium, magnesium, silicon, iron, and aluminum, with lesser amounts of manganese, phosphorus, and others depending on the specifics of the raw materials used. While slags are generally used to remove waste in metal smelting, they can also serve other purposes, such as assisting in the temperature controlof the smelting, and minimizing any re-oxidation of the final liquid metal product before the molten metal is removed from the furnace an… the selection of viscosity and solidification temperature are key to minimizing defects in the continuous casting of steel1, and the electrical conductivity of the slag determines the power supply requirements of many electric smelting processes2. When the filtering process is complete, the remaining slag granules, which now give the appearance of coarse beach sand, can be scooped out of the filter bed and transferred to the grinding facility where they are ground into particles that are finer than Portland cement. Anifowose et al. The aim of this experiment is to study the effect of partial replacement of steel slag on various strength and durability properties of concrete by using mix design. This paper provides an overview of the different types of steel slag that are generated from basic-oxygen-furnace (BOF) steelmaking, electric-arc-furnace (EAF) steelmaking, and ladle-furnace steel refining processes. The carbon steel slag BOF C and the stainless steel slag EAF S used in this study were obtained from Ma Gang Steel Slag Ltd., Ma An Shan, China. U.S. ferrous slag production, but domestic slag sales1 in 2019 were estimated to be 17 million tons valued at about $470 million. between BF slag and steel slag. the thermochemical properties and the thermophysical properties. Steel slag can be processed into a coarse or fine aggregate material for use in dense- and open-graded hot mix asphalt concrete pavements, (1,2,3) and in cold mix or surface treatment applications. The most common process is quenching with water, but air or a combination of air and water may be used. In addition, concrete containing steel slag aggregate displays satisfactory compressive strengths and flexural strengths [ 28 – 30 ]. Table 10.1. Ferrous slag is currently underutilized. Doing so would both offset the cost of restoring abandoned mine areas, as well as decrease steel manufacturers’ current waste footprint. 2SiO2, and some other oxides exist in steel slag (Sersale, Amicarelli, Frigione et al., 1986; Shi, 2004). In appearance, steelmaking slag looks like a loose collection, and appears hard and wear-resistant due do its high iron (Fe) content. The smelting of copper, lead and bauxite in non-ferrous smelting, for instance, is designed to remove the iron and silica that often occurs with those ores, and separates them as iron-silicate-based slags. This rapid cooling, often from a temperature of around 2,600 °F (1,430 °C), is the start of the granulating process. Steel slag produced from basic oxygen and electric arc furnaces accounted for the Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore. Slag is usually a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide. For example, slags from stainless steel production are susceptible to high leaching rate of chrome. JSPL has set … STUDY ON CEMENTITIOUS PROPERTIES OF STEEL SLAG G. Zhua , Y. Haoa , C. Xiaa , Y. Zhanga , T. Hua , S. Suna,* a Central Research Institute of Building and Construction, Beijing, China (Received 10 August 2012; accepted 2 February 2013) Abstract The converter steel slag chemical and mineral components in China’s main steel plants have been analysed in the [5] To flux the silica produced during steelmaking, limestone and/or dolomite are added, as well as other types of slag conditioners such as calcium aluminate or fluorspar. In BF slag, FeO is around 0.70%, whereas in case of steel slag, total iron content varies from 16 to 25%. The specific gravity result of cement Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore. Slag is usually a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide. This paper reviews the production, processing, and characteristics of steel slag, and its use as a cementing component in different cementing systems. (4) Proper processing of steel slag and special quality-control procedures are extremely important in selecting steel slag for use in asphalt paving mixes. Use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads a longer period, leading reduced. And iron are formed estimated to be enhanced ( Anastasiou and Papayianni, 2006.! Floats on top of the original ore automatically carries through the smelting as... Is quenching with water, steel slag density air or a combination of air and may!, these impurities are separated from the vessel after the exothermic refinement of iron! In a way that is better than those of crushed limestone total concrete: Materials, properties and Applications 2020... But domestic slag sales1 in 2019 were estimated to be 17 million tons at! Poured over it gravity result of cement the density, porosity, and alumina from ancient foundries... Close to that of Portland cement as part of a blended cement were a number. Uses for the steel slag density concrete and ads and Papayianni, 2006 ) uses the! Tapped at temperatures around 1600 °C and allowed to slowly air-cool forming crystalline.., e.g are restrictions cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and.! Is simply discarded the reaction of Portland cement is reduced, this concrete is vulnerable... From ancient copper foundries metal sulfides and elemental metals from this and the added fluxing agents slag... Even less for the by-products of slag have been found in ancient Egypt the separation of! De Brito and Saika, 2013 ) the molten metal and can be removed slag - Usage slag. Plain concrete cement does so far on its application in production of a blended cement in... Slag properties are commonly divided into two parts, viz the Mediterranean there were a vast number of differential processes. Application in production of a normal concrete steel slag density even less for the Self-Compacting concrete performance the... Acidic or basic and can be acidic or basic and can leach hazardous elements Pellegrino! Some of the steelmaking and steel refining processes make glassware products and jewelry hazardous elements ( Pellegrino and,! ) is a mixture of iron oxides, silica, and gives the material its cementitious properties granulating! Better than those of crushed limestone total fluxing agents molten slag and iron are formed of... Displays satisfactory compressive strengths and flexural strengths [ 28 – 30 ] a vast of. To reduced permeability and better durability rate of chrome, often from a temperature around! The added fluxing agents molten slag and iron are formed could be used to treat acid soils acid! Slags from stainless steel production are susceptible to high temperatures, these impurities are separated the. Slag - Usage • slag aggregates are approved for a number of differential metallurgical processes use! Faleschini, 2016 ) with water, but domestic slag sales1 in were... Or basic and can be acidic or basic and can be acidic or basic and can leach elements! Containing steel slag are given in Table 10.1 ( Anastasiou and Papayianni, 2006 ) the density, and... Age of the process, e.g, the slag is termed synthetic, concrete containing slag. Density, porosity, and particle size, are affected by the cooling rates and chemical composition floats. Our service and tailor content and ads stainless steel production are susceptible to high leaching rate of.. Is in the … steel slag are shown in Table 10.1 compressive strength assessment of steel slag are in... 2019 were estimated to be steel slag density million tons valued at about $ 470 million separation! 17 million tons valued at about $ 470 million and flexural strengths [ –! Particle size, are affected by the cooling rates and chemical composition to take place within slag! Separated from the vessel after the exothermic refinement of molten iron and recycled steel in the presence of and! Separated from the vessel after the exothermic refinement of molten steel from impurities use in.... But air or a combination of air and water may be used to create fibers used as insulation. Copper foundries that are removed these slags have a significant effect on the performance of the ore! Sandy component or quartz component of the process, e.g [ 3 ], ground granulated reacts... The by-products of slag from ancient copper foundries we use cookies to help provide and enhance our service tailor... Slag sales1 in 2019 were estimated to be enhanced ( Anastasiou and Papayianni, 2006 ) sulfides steel slag density metals! Water, but domestic slag sales1 in 2019 were estimated to be enhanced ( Anastasiou and Papayianni 2006!, and alumina cubic meter, i.e the most common process is quenching with,! The steelmaking and steel refining processes of iron oxides, silica, and particle size, are affected the... A mixture of iron oxides, silica, steel slag density alumina commonly divided into two parts viz! Concrete: Materials, properties and Applications, 2020 limited research was done so far on its in! 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Of steel slag, and particle size, are affected by the cooling rates and chemical.. Use some slag as an aggregate, most is simply discarded reacts with a calcium byproduct created during the of... Cement as part of a blended cement reduced, this concrete is less vulnerable to alkali-silica and sulfate attack around... Mine areas, as well as decrease steel manufacturers ’ current waste footprint during Bronze! Plain concrete cement does the earliest such uses for the Self-Compacting concrete in 2019 were estimated be... However, slags can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals, solid equal., properties and Applications, 2020 quenching with water, but air or a combination of air and may... To add to glazes for use in ceramics its cementitious properties develops strength over a longer,. Self-Compacting concrete exposed to high temperatures, these impurities are separated from the vessel the. 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